How to solve the impact of plateau environment on diesel generators
Diesel generator sets currently produced and sold in China are generally only suitable for altitudes below 1,000 meters. In the plateau area, due to changes in environmental factors, the actual use conditions of engineering mechanical and electrical equipment have been significantly different from the original design conditions, which has caused the performance and reliability of engineering mechanical and electrical equipment to be severely reduced. Therefore, the adaptation of engineering mechanical and electrical equipment to the plateau environment has been strengthened. The basic research work on technology is essential to the development of high-prototyping engineering mechanical and electrical equipment.
Affected by the special environmental conditions of the plateau, the power of the prime mover of the diesel generator set decreases, the oil consumption of the engine oil and diesel increases, and the heat load rises, which has a greater impact on the power and main electrical parameters of the generator set; even for the boosted generator, due to the prime mover The substance affected by the plateau conditions has not changed, but the decline in performance has decreased, and the problem still exists. Therefore, the increase in the fuel consumption rate, heat load and reliability of the generator set will cause economic losses to users and the country of up to 100 million yuan per year, which will seriously affect the social benefits of the plateau region. The decline in power performance will cause diesel generators to Some load capacities have fallen, causing equipment and power grids to be unable to reach their due work and production capacity due to insufficient power supply.
In the following, we proceed from the theoretical analysis and combine examples to explore the impact of plateau environment on the performance of diesel generators and its countermeasures. To solve the problem of electric power reduction of diesel generators caused by the plateau environment, the power reduction of the prime mover diesel engine must be solved first. Through a series of plateau-adaptive complete set of technical measures such as power recovery supercharging and intercooling, the power, economics, thermal balance, and low-temperature starting performance of the original diesel engine of the diesel generator set can be effectively restored, so that the electrical performance of the generator set is restored The original level, and will have a strong environmental adaptability in a wide range of altitudes.
1. The output current of the generator set will change with the change of altitude. As the altitude increases, the power of the generator set, ie, the output current decreases, and the fuel consumption rate rises. This effect also affects the electrical performance indicators to varying degrees.
2. The frequency of the generator set is determined by its structure, and the frequency change is proportional to the speed of the diesel engine. Because the governor of a diesel engine is a mechanical centrifugal type, its working performance is not affected by changes in altitude, so the degree of change in the steady-state frequency adjustment rate should be the same as that in low altitude areas.
3. The instantaneous change of the load will inevitably cause the instantaneous change of the torque of the diesel engine, and the output power of the diesel engine will not change instantaneously. Generally speaking, the two indicators of instantaneous voltage and instantaneous speed are not affected by altitude, but for supercharged units, the delay of the supercharger response speed affects the response speed of the diesel engine speed, these two indicators have increased high.
4. According to the analysis and test, it is proved that the diesel generator set decreases its power, increases its fuel consumption rate, and increases its heat load as the altitude increases. The performance changes are very serious. After the implementation of a set of high-pressure and intermediate-cooled power restoration plateau adaptive technical measures, the technical performance of the diesel generator set can be restored to the original factory value at an altitude of 4000m, and the countermeasures are completely effective and feasible. The generator company proposed the following solutions to the above problems:
1.Power recovery technology
Power recovery supercharging is mainly used to increase the pressure of non-supercharged diesel engines when the power of the plateau decreases. It increases the density of the cylinder by boosting the air supply to increase the excess air coefficient and achieve full combustion of the fuel in the cylinder. The purpose of restoring the average effective pressure is to restore its power to the original low altitude calibration level, during which its fuel supply remains unchanged. Therefore, good boost matching is an important technical key to restore the performance of the generator set.
2. Intercooling measures
After the intake air is pressurized, its temperature rises with the pressure at the same time, which affects the recovery of intake air density and power, and causes a sharp increase in heat load and exhaust temperature, further affecting reliability. The use of an intercooling device to cool the pressurized intake air is conducive to reducing the heat load and further increasing the power. The cooperation with the supercharging measures is a key part of improving power and reliability.
3. Thermal balance control
After boosting power, the original cooling system could not meet the requirements. The reason is that in the plateau environment, the air density decreases and the boiling point of cooling water decreases. If water cooling measures are taken, a new heat source is added. To this end, it is necessary to readjust and select appropriate water tank and fan parameters to properly control the diesel engine thermal balance.
4.Pressurized air filtration system
The air supply will increase when the diesel engine is pressurized, especially for the characteristics of plateau sand and dust. It is required that the air filter should be as efficient as possible, with low resistance, large flow, long life, small size, light weight, low cost, easy maintenance, etc. Features.
5. Low temperature start on plateau
Low temperature starting conditions are more severe. Although the extreme temperature is not very low (-30 ° C) within 4000m above sea level, due to the low air pressure, the end-point compression pressure and temperature are insufficient, and the supercharging device blocks the starting intake air, so the starting condition is not good. But for the unit, the advantage is that the starting load is relatively low, and it can be reloaded after the temperature rises to an appropriate condition after starting. Based on many years of low-temperature start-up test studies, pre-heated start-ups and supplemented by low-temperature battery combinations are considered.
6.Pressurized lubrication system
The supercharger is a high-temperature, high-speed rotating component with a speed of up to 105r / min. Cooling and lubrication is extremely important. Its fuel requires special pressurized oil and is also suitable for diesel engine systems.
The test proves that the diesel generator set decreases its power, increases its fuel consumption rate, and increases its heat load as the altitude increases, and the performance changes are very serious. After the implementation of the plateau adaptive technical measures such as boosted intercooled power recovery, the technical performance of the diesel generator set can be restored to the original factory value at an altitude of 4000m, and the countermeasures are completely effective and feasible.
Only by correctly understanding the harmful effects of high-altitude areas on the power of diesel engines, can we properly and reasonably choose a power diesel generator set suitable for its own use, so as not to cause unnecessary waste.
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